The Persian Wars

The Persian Wars
Title The Persian Wars PDF eBook
Author Herodotus
Publisher DigiCat
Pages 245
Release 2023-11-19
Genre Fiction
ISBN

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Herodotus, the great Greek historian, wrote this famous history of warfare between the Greeks and the Persians in a delightful style. Herodotus portrays the dispute as one between the forces of slavery on the one hand and freedom on the other. This work covers the rise of the Persian influence and a history of the Persian empire, a description and history of Egypt, and a long digression on the landscape and traditions of Scythia. Because of the comprehensiveness of this work, it was considered the founding work of history in Western literature. A must-have for history enthusiasts.

The Countercultural Victory of 1 John in Greco-Roman Context

The Countercultural Victory of 1 John in Greco-Roman Context
Title The Countercultural Victory of 1 John in Greco-Roman Context PDF eBook
Author Ahreum Kim
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing
Pages 173
Release 2023-09-21
Genre Religion
ISBN 0567712087

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Ahreum Kim re-examines conquering language in 1 John, arguing that when the letter is read with the context of Greco-Roman culture in mind, the conflict extends beyond in-fighting within the Johannine community. She suggests that the letter's author presents a consistent countercultural narrative due to concern about the predominant world, and proposes that the author exhorts the minority Johannine community to hold onto their belief while proclaiming that they are triumphant conquerors against the prevailing “world”. Kim first examines how conquering language toward a Johannine nike utilizes militaristic undertones already familiar in Greco-Roman culture. She argues that each of the opponents mentioned is affiliated with “the world”, and it is ultimately the conquering of the world itself which marks the Johannine victory. Kim demonstrates that the author references the negative fear of the divine in the polytheistic world which contrasts with the Johannine love of God, and that his countercultural message continues to the very end, with a concluding warning against the many worldly idols. Finally, she posits that the battle with the Greco-Roman world is ultimately a conflict of pistis, comparing Roman soldiers achieving military victories with a pistis to their emperor, and the repeated emphasis on Jesus as the true Son of God.

Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity

Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity
Title Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity PDF eBook
Author Jacqueline Fabre-Serris
Publisher Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Pages 293
Release 2021-04-06
Genre History
ISBN 3110719940

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The question of ‘identity’ arises for any individual or ethnic group when they come into contact with a stranger or another people. Such contact results in the self-conscious identification of ways of life, customs, traditions, and other forms of society as one’s own specific cultural features and the construction of others as characteristic of peoples from more or less distant lands, described as very ‘different’. Since all societies are structured by the division between the sexes in every field of public and private activity, the modern concept of ‘gender’ is a key comparator to be considered when investigating how the concepts of identity and ethnicity are articulated in the evaluation of the norms and values of other cultures. The object of this book is to analyze, at the beginning Western culture, various examples of the ways the Greeks and Romans deployed these three parameters in the definition of their identity, both cultural and gendered, by reference to their neighbours and foreign nations at different times in their history. This study also aims to enrich contemporary debates by showing that we have yet to learn from the ancients’ discussions of social and cultural issues that are still relevant today.

Military Operational Planning and Strategic Moves

Military Operational Planning and Strategic Moves
Title Military Operational Planning and Strategic Moves PDF eBook
Author Lucía Martínez Ordóñez
Publisher Springer
Pages 101
Release 2017-05-03
Genre Mathematics
ISBN 3319561081

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This book employs game theory to warfare and in particular to military operations. It aims at scrutinizing the validity of the two ideas that have governed the literature on war and warfighting: One is the Clausewitzian Fog of War, which suggests that he who is able to "see" through the gunsmoke and observe his opponent’s moves before he has to commit to some strategy himself, should be able to gain an advantage over that enemy; the other is the tradition of understanding military conflict as a zero-sum game. Combined, these ideas seem to imply that war always gives rise to a second-mover advantage. This book questions the validity of this presumption at the operational level of military planning. It provides a simple but rigorous game-theoretic framework in order to analyse operational alternatives for a whole range of typical conflicts Western military forces are facing, including the most recent ones such as Anti-Access/Area-Denial and supporting host nations' counterinsurgency campaigns.

Ideology of Democratic Athens

Ideology of Democratic Athens
Title Ideology of Democratic Athens PDF eBook
Author Barbato Matteo Barbato
Publisher Edinburgh University Press
Pages 340
Release 2020-05-28
Genre History
ISBN 1474466451

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Investigates the construction of democratic ideology in Classical Athens through a study of the social memory of Athens' mythical pastProposes a novel approach to Athenian democratic ideology that opens new frontiers of investigation in ancient history and the social sciencesThe introduction clearly sets out the aims and methodology of the book and its place within the scholarship in ancient history and the social sciencesFour case studies illuminate the impact of Athenian democratic institutions on ideology, myth, and the use of social memoryOffers a long-awaited new interpretation of the Athenian funeral oration for the war deadOffers clear overviews of Athenian democratic institutions (e.g., Assembly, Council, lawcourts) based on the most recent scholarshipProvides up-to-date overviews of several values in Greek thought (e.g., charis, hybris, eugeneia)The debate on Athenian democratic ideology has long been polarised around two extremes. A Marxist tradition views ideology as a cover-up for Athens' internal divisions. Another tradition, sometimes referred to as culturalist, interprets it neutrally as the fixed set of ideas shared by the members of the Athenian community. Matteo Barbato addresses this dichotomy by providing a unitary approach to Athenian democratic ideology. Analysing four different myths from the perspective of the New Institutionalism, he demonstrates that Athenian democratic ideology was a fluid set of ideas, values and beliefs shared by the Athenians as a result of a constant ideological practice influenced by the institutions of the democracy. He shows that this process entailed the active participation of both the mass and the elite and enabled the Athenians to produce multiple and compatible ideas about their community and its mythical past.

Divination and Knowledge in Greco-Roman Antiquity

Divination and Knowledge in Greco-Roman Antiquity
Title Divination and Knowledge in Greco-Roman Antiquity PDF eBook
Author Crystal Addey
Publisher Routledge
Pages 226
Release 2021-07-15
Genre History
ISBN 1315449463

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Addressing the close connections between ancient divination and knowledge, this volume offers an interlinked and detailed set of case studies which examine the epistemic value and significance of divination in ancient Greek and Roman cultures. Focusing on diverse types of divination, including oracles, astrology, and the reading of omens and signs in the entrails of sacrificial animals, chance utterances and other earthly and celestial phenomena, this volume reveals that divination was conceived of as a significant path to the attainment of insight and understanding by the ancient Greeks and Romans. It also explores the connections between divination and other branches of knowledge in Greco-Roman antiquity, such as medicine and ethnographic discourse. Drawing on anthropological studies of contemporary divination and exploring a wide range of ancient philosophical, historical, technical and literary evidence, chapters focus on the interconnections and close relationship between divine and human modes of knowledge, in relation to nuanced and subtle formulations of the blending of divine, cosmic and human agency; philosophical approaches towards and uses of divination (particularly within Platonism), including links between divination and time, ethics, and cosmology; and the relationship between divination and cultural discourses focusing on gender. The volume aims to catalyse new questions and approaches relating to these under-investigated areas of ancient Greek and Roman life. which have significant implications for the ways in which we understand and assess ancient Greek and Roman conceptions of epistemic value and variant ways of knowing, ancient philosophy and intellectual culture, lived, daily experience in the ancient world, and religious and ritual traditions. Divination and Knowledge in Greco-Roman Antiquity will be of particular relevance to researchers and students in classics, ancient history, ancient philosophy, religious studies and anthropology who are working on divination, lived religion and intellectual culture, but will also appeal to general readers who are interested in the widespread practice and significance of divination in the ancient world.

Determined by Christ: The Pauline Metaphor ‘Being in Christ’

Determined by Christ: The Pauline Metaphor ‘Being in Christ’
Title Determined by Christ: The Pauline Metaphor ‘Being in Christ’ PDF eBook
Author Barbara Beyer
Publisher BRILL
Pages 486
Release 2024-01-22
Genre Religion
ISBN 9004686193

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What does it mean that the believers are ‘in Christ’ (Rom 8:1; 2 Cor 5:17 etc.)? The phrase has become so common to Christian discourse that it obscures the original meaning. By analysing key passages and stripping back the interpretive layers, this book portrays ‘in Christ’ in the light of Greek language usage. Insights from metaphor theory, onomastics, and ritual theory further the investigation. The book also addresses prepositional phrases like ‘with Christ’ and how ‘in Christ’ developed in the deutero-Pauline letters. This comprehensive perspective illuminates a crucial early-Christian phrase and how believers viewed their relationship to Christ.